Bibliography (manual for learning and editing)

  1. Carbonifererous
    1. Carboniferous Period (Summary)
    2. Carboniferous Period of Paleozoic Period
    3. Climate During the Carboniferous Period
    4. Columbia Encyclopedia
    5. First 3.7 billion years of Earth
    6. Historical Period
  2. Incidental
    1. Chimeric photoreceptor gene evolution
    2. Evolution of Plants
    3. Evolution of fern and seed plant leaf morphologies
    4. Mountain Formation from Plate Convergence
    5. Moving Continents
    6. Paleozoic Era
    7. Permian Period of Paleozoic Period (Summary)


  1. Carboniferous
    1. Carboniferous Period (Summary)
      1. The Carboniferous Period occurred from about 354 to 290 million years ago during the late Paleozoic Era. The term "Carboniferous" comes from England, in reference to the rich deposits of coal that occur there. These deposits of coal occur throughout northern Europe, Asia, and midwestern and eastern North America. The term "Carboniferous" is used throughout the world to describe this period, although this period has been separated into the Mississippian (Lower Carboniferous) and the Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous) in the United States. This system was adopted to distinguish the coal-bearing layers of the Pennsylvanian from the mostly limestone Mississippian, and is a result of differing stratigraphy on the different continents. (LinkBack Fl= 0 Quotes:2)
      2. Carboniferous Forest : The Carboniferous Period is famous for its vast coal swamps, such as the one depicted here. Such swamps produced the coal from which the term "Carboniferous", or "carbon-bearing" comes.
      3. In addition to having the ideal conditions for the beginnings ofcoal, several major biological, geological, and climatic events occurred during this time. One of the greatest evolutionary innovations of the Carboniferous was the amniote egg, which allowed for the further exploitation of the land by certain tetrapods. The amniote egg allowed the ancestors of birds, mammals, and reptiles to reproduce on land by preventing the desiccation of the embryo inside.
      4. Geologically, the Late Carboniferous collision of Laurussia (present-day Europe and North America) into Godwanaland (present-day Africa and South America) produced the Appalachian mountain belt of eastern North America and the Hercynian Mountains in the United Kingdom.
    2. Carboniferous Period of Paleozoic Period
      1. The Carboniferous Period Began: 360 million years ago Ended: 286 million years ago Lasted: 074 million years
      2. The North American Upper Carboniferous environment was alternately terrestrial and marine, with the transgression and regression of the seas caused by glaciation. These environmental conditions, with the vast amount of plant material provided by the extensive coal forests, allowed for the production of coal. Plant material did not decay when the seas covered them and pressure and heat eventually built up over the millions of years to transform the plant material to coal.
      3. The appearance or disappearance of fauna usually marks the boundaries between time periods.
      4. Coal beds, which can be up to eleven to twelve meters thick, characterize the Upper Carboniferous .... The forests of seedless vascular plants that existed in the tropical swamp forests of Europe and North America provided the organic material that became coal. Dead plants did not completely decay and was turned to peat in these swamp forests. When the sea covered these swamps, marine sediments covered the peat. Eventually, heat and pressure transformed these organic remains into coal. Coal balls found in sites contain these plant remains. (LinkBack Fl= 0 Quotes:7)
      5. The Carboniferous was marked by the progressive formation of the supercontinent Pangea.
    3. Climate During the Carboniferous Period
      1. West Virginia today is mostly an erosional plateau carved up into steep ridges and narrow valleys, but 300 million years ago, during the Carboniferous Period, it was part of a vast equatorial coastal swamp extending many hundreds of miles and barely rising above sea level. This steamy, tropical quagmire served as the nursery for Earth's first primitive forests, comprised of giant lycopods, ferns, and seed ferns.
      2. North America was located along Earth's equator then, courtesy of the forces of continental drift. The hot and humid climate of the Middle Carboniferous Period was accompanied by an explosion of terrestrial plant life.
      3. Interestingly, the last half of the Carboniferous Period witnessed periods of significant ice cap formation over polar landmasses-- particularly in the southern hemisphere. Alternating cool and warm periods during the ensuing Carboniferous Ice Age coincided with cycles of glacier expansion and retreat. Coastlines fluctuated, caused by a combination of both local basin subsidence and worldwide sea level changes.
      4. Earth's climate and atmosphere have varied greatly over geologic time. Our planet has mostly been much hotter and more humid than we know it to be today, and with far more carbon dioxide (the greenhouse gas) in the atmosphere than exists today. The notable exception is 300,000,000 years ago during the late Carboniferous Period, which resembles our own climate and atmosphere like no other.
      5. With this in mind the road to understanding global warming and our present climate begins with an historical journey through a chapter in Earth's history, some 30 million years before dinosaurs appeared, known as the Carboniferous Period-- a time when terrestrial Earth was ruled by giant plants and insects, and glaciers waxed and waned over a huge southern continent.
      6. The Carbon in "Carboniferous" An intriguing story of climate change is recorded in the rocks which comprise the geological formations laid down during the Carboniferous Period. Coal deposits play an important role in this record.
      7. Coal is mostly carbon accumulations from fossil plant material deposited in swamps so devoid of oxygen that bacteria and other critters couldn't survive to feed on their remains. The explosion of luxuriant plant growth and coal bed formation that occurred 286 - 360 million years ago is the reason for the name, "Carboniferous Period."
      8. North American geologists have found it convenient to divide the Carboniferous Period into two parts: The first half is called the "Mississippian Period" and is characterized by deposition of mostly thick marine limestones in shallow, tropical seas.
      9. The last half of the Carboniferous is called the " Pennsylvanian Period," and contains mostly sediments and coal seams created by meandering river deltas periodically interrupted by marine inundations. Many places around the world contain important coal beds deposited during this time period.
      10. Average global temperatures in the Early Carboniferous Period were hot- approximately 22° C (72° F). However, cooling during the Middle Carboniferous reduced average global temperatures to about 12° C (54° F).
      11. Similarly, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Early Carboniferous Period were approximately 1500 ppm (parts per million), but by the Middle Carboniferous had declined to about 350 ppm -- comparable to average CO2 concentrations today!
      12. Earth's atmosphere today contains about 370 ppm CO2 (0.037%). Compared to former geologic times, our present atmosphere, like the Late Carboniferous atmosphere, is CO2- impoverished! In the last 600 million years of Earth's history only the Carboniferous Period and our present age, the Quaternary Period, have witnessed CO2 levels less than 400 ppm.
      13. Late Carboniferous to Early Permian time (315 mya -- 270 mya) is the only time period in the last 600 million years when both atmospheric CO2 and temperatures were as low as they are today
      14. The Carboniferous Period and the Ordovician Period were the only geological periods during the Paleozoic Era when global temperatures were as low as they are today. To the consternation of global warming proponents, the Late Ordovician Period was also an Ice Age while at the same time CO2 concentrations then were nearly 12 times higher than today-- 4400 ppm. According to greenhouse theory, Earth should have been exceedingly hot. Instead, global temperatures were no warmer than today. Clearly, other factors besides atmospheric carbon influence earth temperatures and global warming.
    4. Columbia Encyclopedia
      1. The plant life of the Carboniferous period was extensive and luxuriant, especially during the Pennsylvanian. It included ferns and fernlike trees; giant horsetails, called calamites; club mosses, or lycopods, such as Lepidodendron and Sigillaria; seed ferns; and cordaites, or primitive conifers. Land animals included primitive amphibians, reptiles (which first appeared in the Upper Carboniferous), spiders, millipedes, land snails, scorpions, enormous dragonflies, and more than 800 kinds of cockroaches.
    5. First 3.7 billion years of Earth
      1. In the late Devonian amphibians evolve and by the middle Carboniferous we have the origin of the Amniotic egg, which frees terrestrial vertebrates from the water in the same way the seed does for plants.
      2. But even towards the end of the Carboniferous, there are no full-time vertebrate herbivores - just a few with teeth that could handle some leafy or fruity tissue. In fact the terrestrial vertebrate community was dominated by carnivores - with the base of the food chain being aquatic, not land plant based. If you look at just the land animals the food pyramid looks upside down.
      3. As a consequence of the burial of this organic matter, O2 levels probably reached our current levels in the Carboniferous, but were kept from going higher by fire and the burial of nutrients.
    6. Historical Period
      1. Carboniferous period: Historical Geology of the Period Historical Geology of the Period The Carboniferous period was marked by vast, coal-forming swamps (see also bog) and a succession of changes in the earth's surface that, continuing into the Permian period, ended the Paleozoic era. The Carboniferous is often split into two divisions, the Mississippian and the Pennsylvanian; in the United States the break in the geologic sequence is so sharp that each division is commonly considered an independent period. The Lower Carboniferous Period In the Lower Carboniferous, or Mississippian, period, the submersion—on several occasions—of the interior of North America under shallow seas resulted in the formation of limestone, shale, and sandstone. In the Appalachian region, especially in Pennsylvania, great deposits of sandstone and shale were laid down by the erosion product
  2. Incidental
    1. Chimeric photoreceptor gene evolution
    2. Evolution of Plants
      1. Overview:
        1. Plants evolved from primitive green algae and likely began their terrestrial invasion approximately 450 million years ago.
        2. Like animals, the steps most pertinant to the invasion of land appear to have involved the evolution of desiccation resistance.
        3. With a terrestrial existence came further modifications which resulted in significant differentiation of plant tissue as well as innovative mechanisms of gamete and progeny dispersal such as flowers and seeds.
        4. Thus, besides their living on land, plants display a more sophisticated and differentiated multicellular anatomy than do even the most sophisticated algae.
    3. Evolution of fern and seed plant leaf morphologies
    4. Mountain Formation from Plate Convergence
    5. Moving Continents
    6. Paleozoic Era
    7. Permian Period of Paleozoic Period (Summary)

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